Analytical Approaches to Stabilization and Adjustment by Cadman Atta Mills

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By Cadman Atta Mills

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For any economic agent, income earned (regardless of whether the source is domestic or foreign) plus transfers received finance expenditure. Income plus transfers, however, need not be equal to expenditure. Savings, which may be positive or negative, is the balancing item. The basic relationship linking income and expenditure is, therefore, as follows: for any economic agent, income plus transfers must be equal to expenditure plus savings. A third basic relationship links savings and assets acquisition: for an economic agent, savings plus borrowing must equal asset acquisition.

However, there is a continuous interaction between the nonmarket household sector and other sectors of the market. For example, a full-time homemaker takes up employment at nominal wages and in turn pays for childcare or hires a nurse to take care of the sick. As a result, manpower is transferred from the household sector to the labor force, and production is transferred from the household sector to the market economy. The services of housewife are similar to the situation of the farmer who consumes part of his produce.

These natural resources are assets that generate flows of income over a period of time. The income lost should be reflected in GNP statistics. In other words, there should be a user cost involved in the use of natural capital. A country can spend the net income earned from the use of natural capital (receipts net of extraction costs) on present consumption or future consumption (investment), or any combination of the two. " The methodology of conversion of value of assets into a flow of permanent income stream is found in Fisher (1930), Ando and Modigliani (1963), Friedman (1957), and Duesenberry (1949), among others.

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