Assessing and Managing the Ecological Impacts of Paved Roads by Committee on Ecological Impacts of Road Density, National

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By Committee on Ecological Impacts of Road Density, National Research Council

All levels of street improvement - from development and use by means of cars to upkeep - have an effect on actual and chemical soil stipulations, water movement, and air and water caliber, in addition to vegetation and animals. Roads and site visitors can regulate flora and fauna habitat, reason vehicle-related mortality, bog down animal migration, and disperse nonnative pest species of vegetation and animals. Integrating environmental issues into all levels of transportation is a vital, evolving strategy. The expanding know-how of environmental concerns has made highway improvement extra advanced and arguable. during the last twenty years, the Federal road management and country transportation organizations have more and more well-known the significance of the consequences of transportation at the typical surroundings. This document presents counsel on how you can reconcile different targets of highway improvement and environmental conservation. It identifies the ecological results of roads that may be evaluated within the making plans, layout, building, and upkeep of roads and provides numerous techniques to aid higher comprehend and deal with ecological affects of paved roads.

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Suzanne van Drunick served as project director and provided gracious leadership throughout the project. Bryan Shipley provided beneficial research and report preparation. Liza Hamilton provided outstanding venues and programs for the meetings and help in preparing the report. David Policansky provided helpful guidance and counsel. Ruth Crossgrove, Mirsada KaralicLoncarevic, John Brown, Alexandra Stupple, and Sammy Bardley also helped with various aspects of the project and report preparation. The committee is appreciative of BEST members for their oversight of this study.

249 B Spatial Scale of Road Effects on Ecological Conditions: Annotated Bibliography ...................................................... 255 C Congressional Declaration of National Environmental Policy, National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 ....................... 293 FIGURES 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 Photograph of double yellow line in the center of a road, 27 A larger segment of the road as seen in Figure 1-1, 28 A larger (longer segment) of road on Emory campus, 29 At this scale of photograph, most of the buildings that make up the central campus of Emory University can be seen embedded in a network of roads, 30 At an extent of 10 km × 10 km, the road patterns around Emory campus are evident, yet individual roads are scarcely visible, 31 At an extent of 100 km × 100 km , the urban imprint of Atlanta is visible, 32 At an extent of 1,000 km × 1,000 km, geological features dominate, 33 At an extent of approximately 10,000 km × 10,000 km, clouds and atmospheric structures appear as well as the entire continent of North America, 34 Ecological hierarchy indicated by the spatial and temporal scales of vegetation structures (needles, patches, and forests), disturbance processes (fire), and atmospheric structures (fronts), 35 Time course of number of vehicle miles traveled by year from 1960 to 2000, indicating travel on rural and urban portions of the highway system, 41 Map of National Highway System in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, 46 Miles of road and use of roads in urban and rural portions of the National Highway System, 47 Total road mileage (summation of all road lengths) and travel by functional type in the year 2000, 48 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

Html xvii Preface and integrate environmental concerns into all phases of road development. We also hope that in some small way this information provides a foundation for a more sustainable future. Lance Gunderson, Chair Committee on Ecological Impacts of Road Density Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. html Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. S. S. S. S. S. Environmental Protection Agency environmental policy statement Endangered Species Act xix Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

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